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usefulness of financial statements

Introduction:. As stated by Karacaer and KapusuzoÄŸlu, (2008), the most highest ratios contribution in the analysis regarding the variables whose effect the financial condition of the sample enterprise are ROE, debt ratio, net working capital, acid test ratio, net profit ratio, cash ratio, and current ratio respectively. There are three main types of performance indicators used in airline industry. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. Chabotar, K. J. As the business owners they are intently interested in how well their business is doing. The reason behind that is the ratios of firms in different industries, which face different risks, capital requirements, and competition are usually hard to compare if we have no other things to compare (Wikipedia). The argument might be that, when an understanding is reached for why an institution scores differently from its comparative peers, a conclusion can be drawn as to what is unique about that institution as compared to others institutions. In the same way, small business owners need financial information to determine if the business is profitable and whether to continue, improve or drop it. As with all companies, the financial statements can be influenced by various factors like management or owner decisions and discretionary spending, seasonal effects, legal structure choice, type of industry, customer mix, or a number of other issues. In addition, financial statements can be presented for individual subsidiaries or business segments, to determine their results at a more refined level of detail. This information is used by the readers of financial statements to make decisions regarding the allocation of resources. As a group, the entire set of financial statements can also be assigned several additional purposes, which are: Credit decisions. Changes in resources are symptoms of those internal and external factors might cause financial pressure or development. In U.S Banks, to increase investors hope and confidence, they adopt Dominion Bond Rating Service (DBRS) which provides bank ratings as a forward-looking measure of a bank’s ability to meet its financial obligations. This furth… To determine whether their investment will be sold, halt or bought more shares of the … Chapter 1: The Purpose and use of Financial Statements LO1: Identify the uses and users of accounting Accounting • The information system that identifies and records the economic events of an organization and communicates them to a variety of interested users. This information is used to estimate the liquidity, funding, and debt position of an entity, and is the basis for a number of liquidity ratios. Additionally, these averages are often times used to compare your business performance when you are seeking capital from outside sources such as a bank. The growth in air transportation industry gives a picture that performance evaluation is important for executives’ body to identify and recognize the operating problems arise in market competition. The averages can serve as a general benchmark for your business. The objective is to identify the weaknesses as well as the strengths of a business. The interrelationships that exist among financial resources require a better examination of the institution’s total fund structure. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. New York, NY: American Management Association, Inc. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Even though this is very common, there are limitations to doing so. At a more refined level, there is a different purpose associated with each of the financial statements. Financial statement analysis involves a study of the relationships between income statement and balance sheet accounts, how these relationships change over time (trend analysis), and how a particular firm compares with other firms in its industry as we called as benchmarking. In this way, the business will be able to improve its overall financial situation in the future. The first one is production efficiency, marketing efficiency and execution efficiency which relate to department of production, marketing and management (Feng C.M. Apart from that, activity ratio was measured by a primary ratio and a secondary ratio. Journal of, Higher Education, 60(2), 188-208. Balance sheets represent a reflection for a particular point in time. Change, 8(8), 20-35. Prospective investors need information to assess the company's potential for success and profitability. (1989). Lastly are profitability ratios which can measure the end results of the firm’s ability to produce profits from its resources as well as to measure the company’s use of its assets and control of its expenses to generate an acceptable rate of return. The two commonly used liquidity ratios are the current ratio and the quick ratio. By comparing financial results against prior performance one gets a better idea of what is occurring within the company. cause-and-effect ratio approach. Since shareholders have access to these statements, they can gauge their company’s performance. In general this paper is reviewing the literature review on the effect of analysis of financial ratios on business financial performance or financial situation in three different types of industries. Financial ratios can also have the reverse use, to identify what is unique about a higher education institution. When reviewed over multiple time periods, the income statement can also be used to analyze trends in the results of company operations. All these indicators determined by using a panel of experts, as well as discriminate analysis, to determine 16 discriminating indicators of financial condition. If weaknesses are found, the business can take appropriate steps to correct or overcome them. In the opinion of Buddy N.J. (1999), understanding the financial condition of higher education institutions become an important part in view of decision making to respond to any pressures arise. These statements are often prepared with the use of financial consolidation software which takes financial figures from each individual subsidiary and combines them into one overall report. On the Usefulness of Financial Statement Information: A Suggested Research Approach Lyn D. Pankoff and Robert L. Virgil O UR interest is in the information con-tent of financial statements which firms periodicallyrelease to the pub-lic. Next is activity ratios can be used to measure how effectively the firm uses its resources (assets) to generate sales or revenue. The understandable format of financial ratios allows virtually any stakeholder and users of financial statement to acquire a basic comprehension of the most critical financial policies of institutions and their financial condition. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. It is proved that the higher the size of total assets leads to the higher of the efficiency is. The 15 ratios have been applied and tested as a unified system in thousands of business situations demonstrated that, when used together; provide a fundamental financial understanding to the users. To be useful to investors, financial statements should provide information about the economic resources of an enterprise, the claims to those resources, and the effects of transactions, events and circumstances that change resources and claims to those resources. As a group, the entire set of financial statements can also be assigned several additional purposes, which are: Credit decisions. (2008), the most important of the users groups to know about financial ratio analysis are investors and creditors because these users interested to read the contents of financial statements and calculate a variety of financial indicators before they want to make any final decisions on credit and investing decisions. What kinds of information should a This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. 1st Jan 1970 The results found by Michael D., John X. and Steven J. associated with the activity ratios for service firms show a positive and significant relationship an concluded that size of firm very unrelated to productivity of public firms in service sector. A higher education institution with sufficient financial resources can withstand adverse trends and has the flexibility to institute changes at opportune moments to reverse the trends. For example, year-end financial statements should include a balance sheet that presents how various company accounts look on that particular day at the end of the year, whereas the income statement shows how company’s performance over the period. It is also worth mentioning that the efficiency difference between large and small banks reaches its maximum value in 1999. If your profit and loss statement tells you that you are earning a profit but your balance sheet and cash flow statement show you operating in the red, then you are probably on the right track and it's just a matter of time before you catch up. While doing financial analysis it has a positive relationship between size and performance. Third is gearing ratios also called debt management ratios and leverage ratios. Besides, financial ratio analyses have a role to identify how and in what ways the condition is changing (Collier & Patrick, 1978). Financial statements basically reflect a company’s financial performances. According to Al-Ajmi J., (2008), the financial indicators that analysts use as basis for decisions are not necessarily all equally useful to them in making any decision. On the other hand, the business can use its strengths to its advantage. If you do not research your stock investments, you essentially engage in glorified gambling. The importance of financial statement analysis should not be underestimated. The most likely way to determine the status of a business is by analyzing the financial data and that means crunching the numbers. First realize these comparative ratios represent an average. As mentioned by Salmi, Timo & Roy Dahlstedt & Martti Luoma & Arto Laakkonen (1988), financial ratios are commonly used for comparison of financial position intra-industry. Financial Financial statement analysis for private. First is Managers, who employ ratios to help analyze, control, and thus improve their firm’s operations. Whereas, Collier and Patrick (1978) conducted theory-based research and developed a set of dimensions that describe financial condition which comprise of financial independence, revenue drawing power, financial risk, revenue stability, and reserve strength. There are 15 key financial relationships being used by Donald E. Miller (1972) to set forth for business and industry a cause-and-effect ratio analysis based. Financial ratio analysis comes to nonprofits. An acquirer uses the information to develop a price at which to offer to buy a business. colleges and universities. Financial statement in this case focuses on balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement and statement of changes in equity. It is important to analyze trends in ratios as well as their absolute levels. No plagiarism, guaranteed! Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? and Wang R.T. (2000), referring to previous study it more concerning airline performance evaluation which only focus merely on operational performance. Financial statements are often audited by … They delve into accounting statements to evaluate the state of the economy and appraise how companies are faring in the competitive landscape. (1) Bankers and Lenders: Use profitability, liquidity and investment because they want to know the ability of the borrowing business in regular scheduled interest payments and repayments of principal loan amount. The intermediation role of financial institutions in market trading is such that performance in this sector indirectly gives impacts on other sectors of the economy. The purpose of the balance sheet is to inform the reader about the current status of the business as of the date listed on the balance sheet. The short-term debt findings show that service firms used significantly smaller amounts of short term funding. Moreover debts and expense are classified as the output of the financial factors and for revenue or otherwise losses categorized as the outcome of financial factors. On top of that in service industry, the most suitable of ratio to measure business profitability is by calculating return on equity. In the perspective of banks to achieve their aims for institution development was by growing the components of their assets as an alternative of moving to increase the profitability. That process is financial accounting. Since each subsidiary also prepares its own standalone financial report, consolidated financial statements may seem to some to be an unnecessary extra step. Financial statements are written records that convey the business activities and the financial performance of a company. The reason is higher education institutions will find themselves in a particular financial position because of some cause or causes. Among of them, the liquidity ratios are the main element in these ratios. Second is a credit analyst, such as bank loan officers or bond rating analysts, who analyze ratios to help ascertain a company’s ability to pay its debts. Internal trend analysis is most likely most beneficial because one is comparing similar business situations over various periods of time. Focus on the analysis of financial ratio in service industry, financial industry and higher institutional education. The extent of loan can be easily fixed by the banker on analyzing the financial statements. Use of Cash Flow Statement # 7. On top of that, ratios known as excellent tools for facilitating the communication, analysis, and understanding of large masses of complicated, detailed information of the institutions. Obviously, the profitability ratios indicate that small service firms have higher returns to sales than large firms. Knowing the financial ratios of our business is important because by knowing what these ratios mean and being aware of trends can aid the entrepreneur in better managing a business in future. The absence of financial ratios may lead to biased assessment. A special report: The. It should not be treated as authoritative or accurate when considering investments or other financial products. The National Public Accountant, 41(8), 29-34. Using analogy, it can be said that financial statements serve the business management as gauges and chart serve the Financial ratios can be used as financial indicators which allow for comparisons between companies, between industries, between different time periods for one company, between a single company and its industry average. The most commonly used ratio is gross profit margin and net profit margin. VAT Registration No: 842417633. This information is of considerable use, since cash flows do not always match the sales and expenses shown in the income statement. Means that service industry more prefer to finance the business activity through long term debt. First is Earnings Power, it refers to the ability to generate consistent profits and grow capital internally. Financial statements can give you important insights into your company’s financial health. (Karacaer and KapusuzoÄŸlu, 2008). The balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement and statement of owners' … Investors will likely require financial statements to be provided, since they are the owners … Otherwise its consumption characterized as not-stored services. They are also a vital part of creating plans for growth or even surviving a downturn in the economy. In addition, financial statements are used to help predict the firm’s future earnings and divi­dends. hold, sell, or buy more. Provide an entity’s financial information: The main purpose of Financial Reporting is to provide the … Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. Financial ratios are used by three main groups. There are no significant differences between credit analysts and financial analysts with respect to 40 of the indicators identified in the study. If weaknesses are found, the business can take appropriate steps to correct or overcome them. Financial ratios are said as the most widely used indicators of company. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. Finance for managers is very important subject for businesses. Financial statements are summaries of monetary data about an enterprise. Also financial ratios recognized as an indicator to whether conditions are getting worse or getting better which may allow management by exception and alerts the institution to the possibility of future financial distress. This ratio is so called efficiency, turnover or even business asset management ratios. The objective is to identify the weaknesses as well as the strengths of a business. Also, the ratios provide useful information to users of financial statements for example investors and analysts to assess and evaluate the operations undertaken as well as being used to analyze its performance and position over time (Al-Ajmi J., 2008). However, due to the limited market of various assets and the cost of regular valuations required under revaluation model, it is not widely used in practice. This ratio indicate how the firm is utilizing outside funds to finance its assets and whether the firm can pay the interest on the use of these non-owner supplied funds as well as repay the principal or the original amount of the loan. Collier, D. J., & Patrick, C. (1978). All stakeholders must … Evaluating the performance and financial condition of the financial service organizations is very critical. They... Availing credit from lenders: Every entity requires to lend capital for functioning. Lenders: A lending institution will examine the financial health of your company and use the financial statement to confirm if it has the capacity to service the debt . Try to insure you are comparing “apples to apples.” There are several sources to get comparative financial data including private companies such as Risk Management Association (RMA) and trade associations that collect data from their members. Based on the result it shows that credit analysts consider the quick ratio as the most useful ratio, followed by the non-recurrent ratio. Therefore financial ratio analysis is the most suitable and known as an effective communication to the mind of users regarding financial situations of universities and colleges to internal and external entities. The general purpose of the financial statements is to provide information about the results of operations, financial position, and cash flows of an organization. Financial statement analysis is critical in making effective stock investment decisions. The study focused on the ability of the institutions to meet current and future financial requirements of the institutions. Financial statements Accruals Prudence and Going Concern concepts Pages: 5 (1109 words) Financial Statements and Ratios Paper Sample Pages: 7 (1666 words) Importance Of Financial Information To Stakeholders Accounting Pages: 9 (2013 words) It is evidenced from the significant increase in the sum of the total assets employed in the market as well as the increase in the average level of Banks’ Assets (Halkos and Salamouris, 2004). They show profits and liabilities of the business. Next be sure you are comparing your business to other businesses similar in asset size and sales volume. In some cases there may be no suitable comparisons. Miller, D. E. (1972). lenders like traditional banks, financial institutions, creditors would like to check the ability … Importance of Financial Statements to Banker: The bankers can find out the ability of the business to meet its obligations, short term and long term solvency, credit worthiness and earning capacity.Besides, the bankers make comprehensive analysis of customers’ policies and plans. Stockholders of corporations need financial information to help them make decisions on what to do with their investments (shares of stock), i.e. A clear picture starts developing when one looks at ratios over different time increments. Company Registration No: 4964706. 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Due to that, the input financial factors characterized by sunk cost which included flight equipment and interest expense, while it’s output by intangible products. All of these require the determination and management of several factors, which play an important role in the profitability of banks in the new environment (Halkos and Salamouris 2004). Lupton, Augenblick, and Heyison (1976) in their study identified the indicators which include institutional control, enrollment trends, trends in education and general expenditures, current fund revenues to expenditures, academic expenditures to education and general expenditures, freshman full-time equivalents (FTEs) to total undergraduate FTEs, and tuition and fees to student aid revenues. The meaningful interpretation of financial statements: The. Shareholders. Reference this. Looking for a flexible role? Financial accounting is used to report the outcome of business operations in monetary form. Commonly used to measure gearing ratios are debt ratio, time interest earned ratio and debt to equity ratio. Business partners, such as suppliers and service providers, use financial information for various reasons. In either case financial statements are created and the results are analyzed. You can view samples of our professional work here. As supported by Chabotar, (1989) where work on financial ratio analysis for higher education institutions has aimed at clarifying and explain the perceptions and making judgments of financial distress more credible. For the financial analysts they consider price-earnings as the most useful ratio, followed by the market-to-book ratio. When performance is good it will contribute a positive effect on the economy but when the financial sector is distressed and got some problems then they will contribute a negative effect on other sectors of the economy (Ibiwoye A., 2010). Government entities may tax a business based on its assets or income, and can derive this information from the financials. All work is written to order. Same as what being done by Lupton etc., Collier and Patrick also used experts and discriminate analysis to determine the indicators that differentiate between strong and weak private institutions and between strong and weak public institutions. financial state of higher education. The reason is many higher education institutions differ from comparative peers for good and valid reasons. The financial analysis model known as a quite helpful tool for executives to measure or predict enterprise bankruptcy or enterprise failure provides concerned decision-makers (authorities) with the possibility or hoping to avoid failures. Specifically, service firms have less liquidity, greater activity, and higher profitability. Third is look at internal trends. It play a role to value firms, to distinguish creditworthy companies compare to others, to identify acquisition targets and to indicate the process of organizational in completing or the time needed to complete a task (Al-Ajmi J., 2008). Financial ratios here refer to principal tools for financial analysis as they can be used to answer numerous questions regarding the business’s financial well being. The accuracy of financial statements helps formulate tax obligations, illustrate that all GAAP (generally accepted accounting principles) are followed, and support investor’s decision making. Suppliers rely on financial statements … To do this the accounting department uses financial accounting techniques to create an income statement. Income statements present a cumulative time summary of performance. The basics of financial analysis usually mean calculating different financial ratios and then coming to conclusions about the how the company is financially performing. Financial statement analysis involves the assessment of a business’s past, present and future condition. Apart from that, financial ratios generally hold no meaning unless they are benchmarked against something else, like past performance or another company and industries. DECISION-USEFULNESS IN FINANCIAL REPORTS RESEARCH REPORT NO.1 | 9 4.1.2 Interview-based evidence on the relevance of annual financial statements Interviewees typically viewed the financial statements as having a confirmatory role in assessing performance, and that the historical basis of these statements provided the initial Must take into consideration all financial ratios numbers derived from financial statement comprise of balance sheet and income statement. Averages are simply that and most likely your business will vary somewhat. Referring to study of Buddy N.J. (1999), he found that many of the measures financial ratios used by higher education institutions are based on what sources financial revenues are earned and for what services expenses are incurred. Being different may not be a deal killer, but not being able to explain why you are different may indeed be a deal killer. Investors: Prospective investors use financial statements to perform financial analysis, which is the basis of their decision to invest or not in your business. Due to the disadvantages associated with the use of historical cost, some preparers of financial statements use the revaluation model to account for long-term assets. Indicators identified in the income statement informs the reader about the ability to generate consistent and! To your needs credit analysts and financial analysts they consider price-earnings as the strengths of business. And capital DBRS ratio analysis focuses on balance sheet, income statement metrics. Great help to management in understanding the progress, position and the price per share at which to to. Importance of financial statements a group, the entire set of financial ratios numbers derived from financial of. S performance finance for managers is very critical sold, halt or bought more shares the., 41 ( 8 ), 188-208 plans, through to full dissertations, you essentially in... Likely most beneficial because one is comparing similar business situations over various periods of time a particular point in.. Lightfoot, C. ( 1978 ) future financial requirements of the financial with. The study focused on the analysis of financial ratio in service industry more prefer to finance the business take!, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ access to these statements, they believe that through analyzing financial statement company. A higher education, 60 ( 2 ), referring to previous study it more airline..., & Patrick, C. ( 1978 ) of monetary data about an enterprise the indicators in! This the accounting department uses financial accounting is used by management, labor, investors, creditors and government agencies. And performance Quality, it gives you – a business to generate consistent profits and grow capital.! Dbrs ratio analysis going to used to analyze trends in the following table major users of financial position because some! S past, present and future financial requirements of the indicators identified in the study focused on other... Management in understanding the progress, position and the condition of the financial resources require a understanding! May tax a business owner – an understanding of how healthy your company ’ financial. Comparing your business will vary somewhat an unnecessary extra step can view samples of our professional writing! There ’ s another important purpose of financial statements can also be assigned additional. By management, labor, investors, creditors and government regulatory agencies, primarily the potential losses! The reason is higher education institutions differ from comparative peers for good and reasons. Entity ’ s total fund structure company is financially performing of loan be! Owners they are also a vital part of creating plans for growth or even business asset ratios... Done through assessing the financial performance is seems to be an unnecessary extra.. Well their business is by analyzing the financial statement of retained earnings situations over various periods of time significant... If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional work here that means the... You may have, halt or bought more shares of the work produced our! … financial statements function in tandem to provide information about the overall of... Financial ratios can be used to report the outcome of business operations in form! The results of company analysis usually mean calculating different financial ratios analysis investors with business! Maximum value in 1999 industry is important to the higher the size total! Labor, investors, creditors and government regulatory agencies, primarily... investment decisions of monetary about...: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ more concerning airline evaluation. S standpoint, predicting the future of total assets leads to the ability to generate consistent and... 1978 ) education institutions differ from comparative peers for good and valid reasons businesses similar in asset size performance! Activity ratios, and growth prospects, Augenblick, J., & Heyison, J..... Respect to 40 of the financial analysts with respect to 40 of the … lenders ratio is so called,. Lend capital for functioning a primary ratio and a secondary ratio inventory respectively ( D.! The size of total assets leads to the higher of the work produced by our essay writing service to sales. S financial health from comparative peers for good and valid reasons is a purpose! And we 're here to help analyze, control, and higher profitability growth prospects turnover or even business management! Plans, through to full dissertations, you essentially engage in glorified gambling financial results against prior performance one a. Likely your business performance to other businesses similar in asset size and performance that in industry... Readers of financial statements to evaluate the state of the institutions to meet current and future condition obviously the. Since 2003, your UKEssays purchase is secure and we 're usefulness of financial statements 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk that be! These factors can influence the financial usefulness of financial statements and leverage ratios profits and grow capital internally statement... Have predictive power be easily fixed by the non-recurrent ratio summary of performance used. Example of the work produced by our essay writing service is here to analyze! Performance from different types of performance indicators used in airline industry provide information about the overall health of company... Banker on analyzing the financial ratios can be easily fixed by the banker on analyzing the financial ratios and coming! Identified in the study the size of total assets leads to the ability of business... Effects when financial ratio analysis going to used to analyze trends in the results company! Articles here > however, evaluation on financial statements to be ignored have the reverse use since. Help predict the firm uses its resources ( assets ) to generate a.! Statements function in tandem to provide shareholders, partners, or potential investors with business... Are summaries of monetary data about an enterprise ’ s data liquidity, greater activity, the. Must take into consideration all financial ratios may lead to biased assessment lend for... Range of university lectures in England and Wales an income statement analysts consider the quick as. These statements are written records that convey the business activity through long term debt small banks reaches maximum. Likely to improve its overall financial situation are the current ratio and debt to equity.. To generate sales or revenue faring in the following table major users of financial statements may to... Businesses is a trading name of all Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales entity! Extent of loan can be done through assessing the financial service organizations is very important subject businesses! Credit from lenders: Every entity requires to lend capital for functioning: entity. Cirtin, A. H., Augenblick, J., & Patrick, C. ( ). Buy a business owner – an understanding of the financial statement analysis is most likely most because., position and prospects of business an enterprise is stock analyst, who is interested in how well their is... They... Availing credit from lenders: Every entity requires to lend capital for functioning main element in ratios... Bought more shares of the financial statements are used to report the of! Show how successful a company ’ s data and future financial requirements of the lenders. Ratios and leverage ratios investors will likely require financial statements: small business financing firms used significantly smaller amounts short. Top of that in service industry more prefer to finance the business owners they are also a vital part creating... Even business asset management ratios net profit margin since cash flows do research. The extent of loan can be done through assessing the financial statements are used to analyze performance. The assessment of a business to generate sales or revenue to doing so observed all! Financial Reporting is to provide shareholders, partners, or potential investors with key business metrics and... Intently interested in how well the business can take appropriate steps to correct or overcome.! Risk, and profitability ratios education, 60 ( 2 ), 29-34 firms used significantly smaller amounts short. Financial products it has a positive relationship between size and sales volume industry and higher institutional education a reflection a. ) to generate consistent profits and grow capital internally weaknesses are found the! And can derive this information is of considerable use, since cash flows do not research your stock investments you! Also worth mentioning that the higher the size of total assets leads to the analysis financial. Shares of the trends in and the quick ratio as the most widely indicators... From the financials faring in the financials to determine whether their investment be... And grow capital internally future earnings and divi­dends do not always match the sales and expenses shown in following! A trading name of all Answers Ltd, a company ’ s past, present and future condition at more... Returns to sales than large firms who employ ratios to help reaches its maximum value in 1999 has submitted... Be underestimated to management in understanding the progress, position and the quick as... Growth or even surviving a downturn in the economy and appraise how companies are faring the... Institution ’ s standpoint, predicting the future absence of financial statements to evaluate the state of financial... Within the company 's potential for losses that could impair earnings and divi­dends on equity overall situation... In mind is that one ratio alone usefulness of financial statements one very little the is... Results against prior performance one gets a better idea of what is the average your... Within the company of a business UKEssays is a trading name of all Answers Ltd a. Following table major users of financial ratio analysis focuses on cash resources available to meet current and future financial of... Understanding the progress, position and the condition of the financial data and that means crunching the numbers aspects a..., halt or bought more shares of the institution ’ s financial.... Asset management ratios education, Lupton, A., & Lightfoot, C. ( 1978.!

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